ABSTRACT Over the past decade, the shift toward damage control surgery for bleeding trauma patients has come with an increased emphasis on optimal resuscitation. Two lifesaving priorities predominate: to quickly stop the bleed and effectively resuscitate the hemorrhagic shock. Blood is separated into components for efficient storage and distribution; however, bleeding patients require all components in a balanced ratio. A variety of blood products are available to surgeons, and these products have evolved over time. This review article describes the current standards for resuscitation of bleeding patients, including characteristics of all available products. The relevant details of blood donation and collection, blood banking, blood components, and future therapies are discussed, with the goal of guiding surgeons in their emergency transfusion practice.