has a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Specific, expert consensus recommendations are provided for the role of external chest compressions in such patients.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Adults and Children With Mechanical Circulatory Support A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest in patients on mechanical support is a new phenomenon brought about by the increased use of this therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. This American Heart Association scientific statement highlights the recognition and treatment of cardiovascular collapse or cardiopulmonary arrest in an adult or pediatric patient who
has a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Specific, expert consensus recommendations are provided for the role of external chest compressions in such patients.
JAMA. 2017 Feb 7;317(5):494-506.
IMPORTANCE:Tracheal intubation is common during adult in-hospital cardiac arrest, but little is known about the association between tracheal intubation and survival in this setting.
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether tracheal intubation during adult in-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with survival to hospital discharge.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Observational cohort study of adult patients who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest from January 2000 through December 2014 included in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, a US-based multicenter registry of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients who had an invasive airway in place at the time of cardiac arrest were excluded. Patients intubated at any given minute (from 0-15 minutes) were matched with patients at risk of being intubated within the same minute (ie, still receiving resuscitation) based on a time-dependent propensity score calculated from multiple patient, event, and hospital characteristics.
EXPOSURE:Tracheal intubation during cardiac arrest.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and a good functional outcome. A cerebral performance category score of 1 (mild or no neurological deficit) or 2 (moderate cerebral disability) was considered a good functional outcome.
RESULTS:The propensity-matched cohort was selected from 108 079 adult patients at 668 hospitals. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range, 58-79 years), 45 073 patients (42%) were female, and 24 256 patients (22.4%) survived to hospital discharge. Of 71 615 patients (66.3%) who were intubated within the first 15 minutes, 43 314 (60.5%) were matched to a patient not intubated in the same minute. Survival was lower among patients who were intubated compared with those not intubated: 7052 of 43 314 (16.3%) vs 8407 of 43 314 (19.4%), respectively (risk ratio [RR] = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.87; P < .001). The proportion of patients with ROSC was lower among intubated patients than those not intubated: 25 022 of 43 311 (57.8%) vs 25 685 of 43 310 (59.3%), respectively (RR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99; P < .001). Good functional outcome was also lower among intubated patients than those not intubated: 4439 of 41 868 (10.6%) vs 5672 of 41 733 (13.6%), respectively (RR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.81; P < .001). Although differences existed in prespecified subgroup analyses, intubation was not associated with improved outcomes in any subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Among adult patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, initiation of tracheal intubation within any given minute during the first 15 minutes of resuscitation, compared with no intubation during that minute, was associated with decreased survival to hospital discharge. Although the study design does not eliminate the potential for confounding by indication, these findings do not support early tracheal intubation for adult in-hospital cardiac arrest.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2017;161:D1174
Br J Anaesth (2017) 118 (3): 311-316.
Bomb or explosion-blast injuries are likely to be increasingly encountered as terrorist activity increases and pre-hospital medical care improves. We therefore reviewed the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of primary blast lung injury. In addition to contemporary military publications and expert recommendation, an EMBASE and MEDLINE search of English speaking journals was undertaken using the medical subject headings (MeSHs) ‘blast injury’ and ‘lung injury’. Review articles, retrospective case series, and controlled animal modelling studies published since 2000 were evaluated. 6-11% of military casualties in recent conflicts have suffered primary blast lung injury but the incidence increases to more than 90% in terrorist attacks occurring in enclosed spaces such as trains. The majority of victims require mechanical ventilation and intensive care management. Specific therapies do not exist and treatment is supportive utilizing current best practice. Understanding the consequences and supportive therapies available to treat primary blast lung injury are important for anaesthetists.
Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan;69(1):1-6.
Recent data suggest that emergency airway preoxygenation with a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device (held with a tight mask seal but without squeezing the bag) is superior to a nonrebreather (NRB) mask at standard oxygen flow rates. We seek to determine whether preoxygenation with an NRB mask with flush rate oxygen (>40 L/min by fully opening a standard oxygen flowmeter) is noninferior to BVM device with standard-flow oxygen (15 L/min). We also seek to compare the efficacy of preoxygenation with NRB mask at flush rate oxygen with both NRB mask with oxygen at 15 L/min and simple mask at flush rate oxygen.
We performed a crossover trial using healthy volunteers. In random sequence, subjects underwent 3-minute trials of preoxygenation with nonrebreather mask with oxygen at 15 L/min (NRB-15), nonrebreather mask with flush rate oxygen (NRB-Flush), BVM device with oxygen at 15 L/min (BVM-15), and simple mask with flush rate oxygen. The primary outcome measure was the FeO2 in a single exhaled breath. We compared the FeO2 of NRB-Flush to other study groups, using a prespecified noninferiority margin of 10%.
We enrolled 26 subjects. Mean FeO2 values for NRB-15, NRB-Flush, BVM-15, and simple mask with flush rate oxygen were 54% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50% to 57%), 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%), 77% (95% CI 74% to 81%), and 72% (95% CI 69% to 76%), respectively. FeO2 for NRB-Flush was noninferior to BVM-15 (difference 8%; 95% CI 5% to 11%). FeO2 for NRB-Flush was higher than both NRB-15 (FeO2 difference 32%; 95% CI 29% to 35%) and simple mask with flush rate oxygen (FeO2 difference 13%; 95% CI 10% to 17%).
Preoxygenation with NRB-Flush was noninferior to BVM-15. NRB with flush rate oxygen may be a reasonable preoxygenation method for spontaneously breathing patients undergoing emergency airway management.
Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 82 - Issue 3 - p 605–617
Background: The resuscitation of severely injured bleeding patients has evolved into a multi-modal strategy termed damage control resuscitation (DCR). This guideline evaluates several aspects of DCR including the role of massive transfusion (MT) protocols, the optimal target ratio of plasma (PLAS) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC) during DCR, and the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rVIIa) and tranexamic acid (TXA).
Methods: Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, a subcommittee of the Practice Management Guidelines (PMG) Section of EAST conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Articles in English from1985 through 2015 were considered in evaluating four PICO questions relevant to DCR.
Result: A total of 37 studies were identified for analysis, of which 31 met criteria for quantitative meta-analysis. In these studies, mortality decreased with use of an MT/DCR protocol vs. no protocol (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43–0.87, p = 0.006) and with a high ratio of PLAS:RBC and PLT:RBC (relatively more PLAS and PLT) vs. a low ratio (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46–0.77, p < 0.0001; OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28–0.71, p = 0.0003). Mortality and blood product use were no different with either rVIIa vs. no rVIIa or with TXA vs. no TXA.
Conclusion: DCR can significantly improve outcomes in severely injured bleeding patients. After a review of the best available evidence, we recommend the use of a MT/DCR protocol in hospitals that manage such patients and recommend that the protocol target a high ratio of PLAS and PLT to RBC. This is best achieved by transfusing equal amounts of RBC, PLAS, and PLT during the early, empiric phase of resuscitation. We cannot recommend for or against the use of rVIIa based on the available evidence. Finally, we conditionally recommend the in-hospital use of TXA early in the management of severely injured bleeding patients.
Comparison of Etomidate and Ketamine for Induction During Rapid Sequence Intubation of Adult Trauma Patients.
Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan;69(1):24-33.e2.
Induction doses of etomidate during rapid sequence intubation cause transient adrenal dysfunction, but its clinical significance on trauma patients is uncertain. Ketamine has emerged as an alternative for rapid sequence intubation induction. Among adult trauma patients intubated in the emergency department, we compare clinical outcomes among those induced with etomidate and ketamine.
The study entailed a retrospective evaluation of a 4-year (January 2011 to December 2014) period spanning an institutional protocol switch from etomidate to ketamine as the standard induction agent for adult trauma patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department of an academic Level I trauma center. The primary outcome was hospital mortality evaluated with multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, vital signs, and injury severity and mechanism. Secondary outcomes included ICU-free days and ventilator-free days evaluated with multivariable ordered logistic regression using the same covariates.
The analysis included 968 patients, including 526 with etomidate and 442 with ketamine. Hospital mortality was 20.4% among patients induced with ketamine compared with 17.3% among those induced with etomidate (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92 to 2.16). Patients induced with ketamine had ICU-free days (adjusted OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.00) and ventilator-free days (adjusted OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.20) similar to those of patients induced with etomidate.
In this analysis spanning an institutional protocol switch from etomidate to ketamine as the standard rapid sequence intubation induction agent for adult trauma patients, patient-centered outcomes were similar for patients who received etomidate and ketamine.
The success of pre-hospital tracheal intubation by different pre-hospital providers: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Critical Care (2017) 21:31 DOI 10.1186/s13054-017-1603-7
Pre-hospital basic airway interventions can be ineffective at providing adequate oxygenation
and ventilation in some severely ill or injured patients, and advanced airway interventions are then required. Controversy exists regarding the level of provider required to perform successful pre-hospital intubation. A previous meta-analysis reported pre-hospital intubation success rates of 0.849 for non-physicians versus 0.991 for physicians. The evidence base on the topic has expanded significantly in the last 10 years. This study systematically reviewed recent literature and presents comprehensive data on intubation success rates.
A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed using PRISMA methodology to identify articles on pre-hospital tracheal intubation published between 2006 and 2016. Overall success rates were estimated using random effects meta-analysis. The relationship between intubation success rate and provider type was assessed in weighted linear regression analysis.
Of the 1838 identified studies, 38 met the study inclusion criteria. Intubation was performed by non-physicians in half of the studies and by physicians in the other half. The crude median (range) reported overall success rate
was 0.969 (0.616–1.000). In random effects meta-analysis, the estimated overall intubation success rate was 0.953 (0.938–0.965). The crude median (range) reported intubation success rates for non-physicians were 0.917 (0.616–1.000) and, for physicians, were 0.988 (0.781–1.000) (p = 0.003).
The reported overall success rate of pre-hospital intubation has improved, yet there is still a significant difference between non-physician and physician providers. The finding that less-experienced personnel perform less well is not unexpected, but since there is considerable evidence that poorly performed intubation carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality careful consideration should be given to the training and experience required to deliver this intervention safely.
Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Angioedema is an uncommon but important cause of airway obstruction. Emergency airway management of angioedema is difficult. We seek to describe the course and outcomes of emergency airway management for severe angioedema in our institution.
We performed a retrospective, observational study of all intubations for angioedema performed in an urban academic emergency department (ED) between November 2007 and June 2015. We performed a structured review of video recordings of each intubation. We identified the methods of airway management, the success of each method, and the outcomes and complications of the effort.
We identified 52 patients with angioedema who were intubated in the ED; 7 were excluded because of missing videos, leaving 45 patients in the analysis. Median time from arrival to the ED to the first intubation attempt was 33 minutes (interquartile range 17 to 79 minutes). Nasotracheal intubation was the most common first method (33/45; 73%), followed by video laryngoscopy (7/45; 16%). Two patients required attempts at more invasive airway procedures (retrograde intubation and cricothyrotomy). The intubating laryngeal mask airway was used as a rescue method 5 times after failure of multiple methods, with successful oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation through the laryngeal mask airway in all 5 patients. All patients were successfully intubated.
In this series of ED patients who were intubated because of angioedema, emergency physicians used a range of methods to successfully manage the airway. These observations provide key lessons for the emergency airway management of these critical patients.
Mortality and Prehospital Blood Pressure in Patients With Major Traumatic Brain Injury Implications for the Hypotension Threshold
JAMA Surg. Published online December 7, 2016.
Current prehospital traumatic brain injury guidelines use a systolic blood pressure threshold of less than 90 mm Hg for treating hypotension for individuals 10 years and older based on studies showing higher mortality when blood pressure drops below this level. However, the guidelines also acknowledge the weakness of the supporting evidence.
To evaluate whether any statistically supportable threshold between systolic pressure and mortality emerges from the data a priori, without assuming that a cut point exists.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Observational evaluation of a large prehospital database established as a part of the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care Traumatic Brain Injury Study. Patients from the preimplementation cohort (January 2007 to March 2014) 10 years and older with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (Barell Matrix Type 1 classification, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision head region severity score of 3 or greater, and/or Abbreviated Injury Scale head-region severity score of 3 or greater) and a prehospital systolic pressure between 40 and 119 mm Hg were included. The generalized additive model and logistic regression were used to determine the association between systolic pressure and probability of death, adjusting for significant/important confounders.
Main Outcomes and Measures:
The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality.
Among the 3844 included patients, 2565 (66.7%) were male, and the median (range) age was 35 (10-99) years. The model revealed a monotonically decreasing association between systolic pressure and adjusted probability of death across the entire range (ie, from 40 to 119 mm Hg). Each 10-point increase of systolic pressure was associated with a decrease in the adjusted odds of death of 18.8% (adjusted odds ratio, 0.812; 95% CI, 0.748-0.883). Thus, the adjusted odds of mortality increased as much for a drop from 110 to 100 mm Hg as for a drop from 90 to 80 mm Hg, and so on throughout the range.
Conclusions and Relevance:
We found a linear association between lowest prehospital systolic blood pressure and severity-adjusted probability of mortality across an exceptionally wide range. There is no identifiable threshold or inflection point between 40 and 119 mm Hg. Thus, in patients with traumatic brain injury, the concept that 90 mm Hg represents a unique or important physiological cut point may be wrong. Furthermore, clinically meaningful hypotension may not be as low as current guidelines suggest. Randomized trials evaluating treatment levels significantly above 90 mm Hg are needed.